participei de vários projetos para editora Moderna, Ática, Saraiva, Spione e Ftd Biologia, Ciências, Geografia, História e ilustrações infantis para livro. Amabis & Martho (), for instance, clearly presents the idea of evolution as an .. AMABIS, J. M.; MARTHO, G. R. Fundamentos de Biologia Moderna (2nd ed.). P. A abordagem da relatividade restrita em livros didáticos do ensino médio. AMABIS, J.M.; MARTHO, G.R. Fundamentos da Biologia Moderna. livro/58ra/JNIC/RESUMOS/resumo_html>.

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It is clear that the biochemical nature of living beings is quite particular to each species or individual. The Great Chain of Being. We also found in the analyzed textbooks fundamehtos informational view of life. It is not that there would be any problem in searching for a unity in the diversity of life.

As a paradigmatic view of definitions releases us from the requirement of listing necessary and sufficient conditions for identifying in an essential and definitive way what are the phenomena that fall in a certain class, it makes it possible to clearly delimit, based on an precise theoretical justification, what are the phenomena in the domain of a given science.

This argument is not sufficient, however, for avoiding a violation of the Cell Theory by viruses, as this theory states that the cell is the basic structural unit of all living beings, and this does not hold in the case of viruses, no matter whether they are strictly dependent on cells or not.

One cannot lose from sight, however, that such a problem is also found in university biology textbooks. Another reductionist tendency is found in the way the fundamentks of life and the molecular or biochemical level are presented as closely related, while other views on life are relegated to a less important rank.

Fundamentos de Biologia Moderna 2nd ed. But a thoughtful analysis can suggest that this solution is not so adequate.


We emphasized how the search for similar features in biological processes and common patterns in the diversity of living beings, which is an inevitable part of any attempt to define life, makes a more integrated approach to biological knowledge possible. This passage suggests that life will be better and better understood as our inquiry delves more and more into the micro- structural levels of living beings. Three books characterized living beings by means of a general description of taxonomic groups that highlighted the maetho of each group Figure 2.

Viruses and other molecular structures showing distinctive properties of both inanimate matter and living beings seem to be exceptional because they contradict our intuitions about the distinction between these two classes of entities.

A response to Gifford. Emmechefor instance, does not consider viruses as borderline cases, but as pathological forms of life, a kind of ultimate parasites, as they presuppose in the functional and evolutionary sense the existence of living cells. Such a view about diseases overlooks the focal level sensu Salthe where pathological processes themselves usually take place, involving not only cells and molecules, but, above all, tissues, organs, and organic systems.

To cast them aside as exceptions seems to be, at first, quite a natural and easy solution. We usually think of life as both form and matter — something with both informational-organizational and material-physical aspects —, but this understanding of life puts too much emphasis on the informational aspect cf. Log In Sign Up. Environmental Causes in Ontogeny.

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It is enough to say that they are all beings in Nature which present a series of common characteristics And, finally, we have in this passage a very clear example of an essentialist approach to a characterization of living beings.

Five books presented lists of properties to differentiate living from non-living beings. This view is reminiscent of one of the most influential ideas in Western thought, that of a scala naturae or Great Chain of Beings Lovejoywhich persists in the views about the evolutionary process emphasizing progress and perfectability. The genetic program metaphor, much criticized in the literature e. At last, all living beings are subjected to death.


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The finding that two books address the problem of defining life in definite paradigmatic contexts is also very interesting. To put it differently, it is the case of trying to find a list of sufficient and necessary properties for a system to fundajentos characterized as living, with no theoretical paradigmatic justification for the choice of properties.

The problem lies in the disproportionate emphasis on the micro-structure of biological systems, usually in an approach moderan to isolate molecular and cellular structures from the organismic and environmental contexts. Prions, by their turn, can hardly be conceived as living, since they are nothing but an abnormal version of a functional protein expressed in neurons.

An emphasis on the description of morphological and anatomical features characterizing groups of plants and animals reinforced the search for lists of essential properties. We did not find, however, any book that addressed the circular, self-referential organization of living systems by employing the conceptual resources of this theory.

Nonetheless, what seems strange in the above solution is that it follows necessarily fundamentoos the attempt to propose lists of necessary and sufficient conditions for life. Skip to main content.

All the instructions to the functioning of the cell would be written, in code, in the DNA molecules. This passage is found in a chapter about the definitions of Biology and life, and is explicit about the difficulties resulting from an essentialist view of definitions.

Metaphors and the role of genes in development. Enter the email address you signed up with and we’ll email you a reset link.