The Jominy end-quench test is used to measure the hardenability of a steel, which is a measure of the capacity of the steel to harden in depth. Jominy Test and Hardness Depth. Thanks to Walter Jominy (the Chief Metallurgist of Chrysler Corporation sometime before the war), there is a simple but. The Jominy end quench test is used to measure the hardenability of a steel, which is a measure of the capacity of the steel to harden in depth under a given set.

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Clicking on the circled data points will take you to images of the microstructure at that location in the sample. The round specimen is then ground flat along its length to a depth of 0. The Jominy test provides a measure of the ability of a steel to harden by transforming into martensite under set conditions, i. It is an indication of how deep into the material a certain hardness can be achieved. Steels with high hardenability are needed for large high strength components, such as large extruder screws for injection moulding of polymers, pistons for rock breakers, mine shaft supports, aircraft undercarriages, and also for small high precision components such as die-casting moulds, drills and presses for stamping coins.

The Jominy End Quench Test, ASTM A

After quenching the hardness profile is measured at intervals from the quenched end after the surface has been ground back to remove any effects of decarburisation 0. The Rockwell hardness of a metal can also be determined using a similar technique. Measurement of hardenability Uses of Jominy data: The cooling rate varies along the length of the sample from very rapid at the quenched end, to rates equivalent to air cooling at the other end.

Knowledge about the hardenability of steels is necessary to be able to select the appropriate combination of alloy steel and heat treatment to manufacture components of different size to minimize thermal stresses and distortion. This composite microstructure of martensite and austenite gives a lower hardness to the steel, although the microhardness of the martensite phase itself is still high.


Knowledge of the hardenability of steels is necessary in order to select the appropriate combination of alloy and heat treatment for components of different size, to minimise thermal stresses and distortion. In other projects Wikimedia Commons. Modern materials and manufacturing processes. Jominy end quench unit for testing the hardenability of steels. The variation of hardness was measured with distance from the quenched end. The interval is typically 1.

Jominy End Quench Test

The depth from the quenched end, over which martensite is obtained, is then the measure of hardenability. Structure of En 8 at the quenched end of Jominy bar. Increasing the austenite grain size therefore decreases the available nucleation sites, which retards the rate of the phase transformation.

The recorded hardness depends kominy the indentation load and the width of the square indentation made by the diamond. Jominy served as president of ASM in This results in a progressive decrease in the rate of cooling along the bar from the quenched end.

The Rockwell test is commonly used in the USA. En jomint is a low hardenability steel when compared with En The graph below gives the Jominy end quench data in terms of the Rockwell hardness number. For example, the cooling jkminy at a distance of 9. It is not only necessary to understand the basic information provided from the Jominy test, but also to appreciate how the information obtained can be used to understand the effects of alloying in steels and the steel microstructure.

By jomin this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Steels with low hardenability may be used for smaller components, such as chisels and shears, or for surface hardened components such as gears.

Now add some CrVMnNior Mo or some other suitable elementsand if you do everything right, you may obtain the blue curves – steels with good hardenability and a much larger hardening depth. It is more common to control hardenability with other elements, and to use carbon levels of less than 0.


Views Read Edit View history. General Remarks to Literature and Sources. The Jominy end quench test is used to measure the hardenability of a steel, which is a measure of the capacity of the steel to harden in depth under a given set of conditions. Jominy end quench test can also be used to demonstrate the effects of microstructure and alloying variables on the hardenability of steels.


The austenite grain size can be affected by other stages in the processing of steel, and therefore the hardenability of a steel also depends on the previous stages employed in its production. Data from the Jominy end quench test can be used to determine whether a particular steel can be sufficiently hardened in different quenching media, for different section diameters.

Retrieved 9 December Select the most appropriate steel to achieve the necessary levels of mechanical properties, residual stress and distortion in a 1mm diameter wood-working drill. The size jomint the time step is set to the maximum allowed while ensuring numerical stability of the simulation. A typical plot of hardness along the length of the 10 cm long steel rod. We now fest assess the efficiency of all that disgusting stuff the ancient smiths used for quenching their steel: At higher carbon levels, the formation of martensite is depressed to lower temperatures and the transformation from austenite to martensite may be incomplete, leading to retained austenite.

For the alloy steel it is larger, they are hard for at least 25 mm. The results are plotted in the graph below. The cold region has transformed from austenite to a mixture of martensite, ferrite and pearlite.

Steel compositions are sometimes described in terms of a carbon equivalent which describes the magnitude of the effect of all of the elements on hardenability.

Click on the circled data points to see how the microstructure varies with distance from the quenched end. The fluid used for quenching the material influences the cooling rate due to varying thermal conductivities and specific heats. Substances like brine and water cool the steel much more quickly than oil or air.