Ecuatiile Maxwell Modificare · Istoric · Talk (0) Ecuațiile lui Maxwell. A nu se confunda cu relațiile lui Maxell din termodinamică. Relațiile lui Maxell. Ecuatiile lui Maxwell in teoria unitaria neolonoma. Front Cover. Gheorghe Vranceanu. Institutul de arte grafice si editura Glasul Bucovinei, – 10 pages. The Maxwell equations are fluidlike equations that describe the creation and flow of Ecuaţiile lui Maxwell se aseamănă cu cele ale fluidelor.

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An alternative viewpoint on the microscopic equations is that they are the macroscopic equations together with the statement that vacuum behaves like a perfect linear “material” without additional polarisation and magnetisation. Following is a summary of some of the numerous other mathematical formalisms to write the microscopic Maxwell’s equations, with li columns separating the two homogeneous Maxwell equations exuatiile the two inhomogeneous ones involving charge and current.

Maxwell’s equations are partial differential equations that relate the electric and magnetic fields to each other and to the electric charges and currents. Views Read Edit View history. Popular variations on the Maxwell equations as a classical theory of electromagnetic fields are relatively scarce because the standard equations have stood the test of time remarkably well. Retrieved from ” https: The currents and charges are not unknowns, being freely specifiable subject to charge conservation.

For this reason the relativistic invariant equations are usually ecuatile the Maxwell equations as well.

You have native languages that can be verified You can request verification for native languages by completing a simple application that takes only a couple of minutes. When an electric field is applied to a dielectric material its molecules respond by forming microscopic electric dipoles — their atomic nuclei move a tiny distance in the ecuatikle of the field, while their electrons move a tiny distance in the opposite direction.

See the main article for details of each formulation. For example, even with no charges and no currents anywhere in spacetime, there are the obvious solutions for which E and B are zero or constant, but there are also non-trivial solutions corresponding to electromagnetic waves.

fluidlike equations | English to Romanian | Physics

Indeed, magnetic charge has never been observed despite extensive searches [note 5] and may not exist. This was a major source of inspiration for the development of relativity theory.


Light cone World line Minkowski diagram Biquaternions Minkowski space. As for any differential equation, boundary conditions [17] [18] [19] and initial conditions [20] are necessary for a unique solution. English term or phrase: In general D and H depend on both E and Bon location and time, and possibly other physical quantities.

The equations are named after the physicist and mathematician James Clerk Maxwellwho between and published an early form of the equations that included the Lorentz force law. Maxwell’s equations and the Lorentz force law along with the rest of classical electromagnetism are extraordinarily successful at explaining and predicting a variety of phenomena; however they are not exact, but a classical limit of quantum electrodynamics QED. Similarly rewriting the magnetic flux in Gauss’s law for magnetism in integral form gives.

The equations introduce the electric fieldEa vector fieldand the magnetic fieldBa pseudovector field, each generally having a time and location dependence. The dynamically induced electric field has closed field lines similar to a magnetic field, unless superposed by a static charge induced electric field.

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Picturing the electric field by its field lines, this means the field lines begin at positive electric charges and end at negative electric charges. John Wiley and Sons. The integral formulation relates fields within a region of space to fields on the boundary and can often be used to simplify and directly calculate fields from symmetric distributions of charges and luo.

In other projects Wikimedia Commons Wikibooks Wikiquote. Maxwell’s equations can be formulated with possibly time-dependent surfaces and volumes by using the differential version and using Gauss and Stokes formula appropriately.

These include photon—photon scattering and many other phenomena related to photons or virtual photons” nonclassical light ” and quantum entanglement of electromagnetic fields see quantum optics. The equivalence of Faraday’s law in differential and integral form follows likewise. This is sometimes called the “general” form, but the macroscopic version below is equally general, the difference being one of bookkeeping.

The cost of this splitting is that the additional fields D and H need to be determined through phenomenological constituent equations relating these fields to the electric field E and the magnetic field Btogether with the bound charge ecuatiils current.

Outside the material, an assembly of such microscopic maxwelo loops is not different from a macroscopic current circulating around the material’s surface, despite the fact that no individual charge is traveling a large distance.


Peer comments on this answer and responses from the answerer. In other words, any magnetic field line that enters a given volume must somewhere exit that volume.

These all form a set of coupled partial differential equations which are often very difficult to solve: The direct spacetime formulations make manifest that the Maxwell equations are relativistically invariant.

These definitions are often preferred in theoretical and high energy physics where it is natural to take the electric and magnetic field with the same units, to simplify the appearance of the electromagnetic tensor: The resulting formulation can lead to more accurate algorithms that take all four laws into account.

This perpetual cycle allows these waves, now known as electromagnetic radiationto move through space at velocity c. For a general description of electromagnetism, see Electromagnetism. However, their use requires experimentally determined parameters for a phenomenological description of the electromagnetic response of materials. For example, since eccuatiile surface is time-independent, we can bring the differentiation under the integral sign in Faraday’s law:.

Ecuatiile lui Maxwell in teoria unitaria neolonoma – Gheorghe Vranceanu – Google Books

If P is uniform, a macroscopic separation of charge is produced only at the surfaces where P enters and leaves the material. For non-uniform Pa charge is also produced in the bulk. Wikipedia articles with GND identifiers. For the equations in special relativitysee classical electromagnetism and special relativity and covariant formulation of classical electromagnetism. The left hand side of the modified Ampere’s Law has zero divergence by the div—curl identity. Maxwell’s equations describe how electric and magnetic fields are generated by chargescurrentsand changes of the fields.

Because of this symmetry electric and magnetic field are treated on equal footing and are recognised as components of the Faraday tensor. These spacetime formulations, though, make that compatibility more readily apparent by revealing that the electric and magnetic fields blend into a single tensor, and that their distinction depends on the movement of the observer and the corresponding observer dependent notion of time.

Background Introduction Mathematical formulation. Combining the right hand side, Gauss’s law, and interchange of derivatives gives:. Electrostatics Magnetostatics Plasma physics.