Standard Method of Test forDensity of Soil In-Place by the Sand-Cone Method AASHTO Designation: T 1. SCOP. AASHTO. 1). T – Density of Soil In-Place by the Sand-Cone. Method. 2). T – Correction for AASHTO T Section 4 and is summarized as follows: 1). Find the most up-to-date version of AASHTO T at Engineering

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The mass of the sand needed to fill the container only is determined by subtracting the mass of the cone correction Step 4. The apparatus described here represents a design that has proven satisfactory. Calculate the volume of the test hole to the nearest 1 cm3 0. Sand—Any clean, dry, free-flowing, uncemented sand having few, if any, particles passing the 0.

Calculate the dry in-place dry density of the material removed from the test hole as follows: Place the empty apparatus upright on a firm level surface, close the valve and fill the funnel with sand.


The base plate is required for calibrations and testing. Drying Equipment—Stove or oven or other suitable equipment for drying moisture content samples. The mass of sand required to fill the cone and base plate is calculated by the difference between the initial aasho Step 4.

The following t1991 to all specified limits in this standard: Appreciable time intervals between the bulk density determination of the sand and its use in the field may result in change in the bulk density caused by a change in the moisture content or effective gradation. To be acceptable the sand shall not have a variation in bulk density greater than 1 percent.

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Subtract the final mass T1911 4. Other apparatus of similar proportions will perform equally well so long as the basic principles of the sand-volume determination are observed.


Dig the test hole inside the opening of the base plate, being very careful to avoid disturbing the soil that will bound the hole. Place the base plate on a clean, level, plane surface. Seat the base plate on the prepared surface.

Close the valve sharply, remove aashot apparatus and determine the remaining mass of the apparatus and sand m4. Also, a balance conforming to the requirements of MClass G 2. Determine and record the mass of the apparatus filled with sand m1 Determine the mass of sand required to fill the funnel and base plate Cone Correction.

Fill the apparatus with sand according to Section 4. The minimum test hole volumes suggested in determining the in-place density of soil mixtures are given in Table 1. Open the valve fully, allow the sand to flow until the sand stops flowing Note 2.

Note 1—The internal diameter of the container shall be equal to or slightly less than the diameter of the opening of the base plate used with the sand-cone. Position the calibration container on a clean, level, plane surface.

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Determine the bulk density of the calibration sand sand calibration factor. Calculate the dry mass of the material removed from the test hole as follows: After the sand has stopped flowing, close the valve Note 2. Care must be taken aashro avoid moisture loss during excavation. Balances—A balance conforming to the requirements of MClass G This table shows the suggested minimum mass of the moisture content sample in relation to the maximum particle size in soil mixtures. Record the total mass m5.


Open the valve fully and keep open until the sand stops flowing Note 2. Calculate the mass of the sand needed to fill the container, funnel and base plate. Note 2—Vibration of the sand during any f191 determination may increase the bulk density of the sand and decrease the accuracy of t911 determination.

The results obtained using these or other rapid test methods must be corrected to the values obtained in accordance with T The valve shall have stops to prevent rotating the valve past the completely open or completely closed positions. Mix the material thoroughly and secure and weigh a representative sample for moisture determination. qashto

Soils that are essentially granular require extreme care. Each sand-cone and matched base plate will also have a set of unique cone corrections and bulk sand densities. Place the apparatus on the base plate, open the valve. Determining the bulk density of sand DB to be used in the field test.

Place all loosened soil in a container, being careful to avoid losing any material. Calculate the dry mass of the material to the nearest 1 g 0. When the sand stops flowing into the apparatus, close the valve sharply and empty the excess sand Note 2.

The apparatus shall conform to the requirements shown asahto Figure 1. Prepare the surface of the location to be tested so that it is a level plane.